Where are the women judges in India’s courtrooms?

The Supreme Court on April 11 frowned upon the practice of barring women between the ages of 10 and 50 years from the Sabrimala shrine in Kerala, asserting that religious practice and tradition could not be allowed to dent constitutional principles and values.

Questioning the validity of tradition which has been under attack from feminists and others, a bench of Justices Dipak Misra, V Gopala Gowda and Kurian Joseph said temple was a public religious place and it must observe the constitutional values of gender equality.

The judges said that the issue involved the question whether tradition could override the Constitution which prohibited gender discrimination. “Why this kind of classification for devotees to visit the temple? We are on constitutional principles. Gender discrimination in such matters is untenable. You cannot create corrosion or erosion in constitutional values,” the bench said.

Such strong statements by the learned judges prompted the author to visit the websites of the Supreme and five key high courts to ascertain the extent of gender equality in the judiciary. Here is the status as on April 12, 2016.


Of the select courts, the percentage of women judges in Delhi High Court is the highest. Could the collegium system of the Apex Court find one only competent woman to be a judge? Did you know that from “1950 to November 2015 only six women became Supreme Court judges out of a total 229 judges appointed?”

India has had a woman prime minister and president but never a woman chief justice.

A November 2015 India Today report shares some interesting facts, “There are just 62 (9.2 per cent) women judges compared to 611 male judges (in high courts) in the entire country. In 24 state high courts, nine HCs did not have a single woman judge. Three high courts had only one woman judge.” Is this a case of gender discrimination or does it imply that only male judges possess the best legal brains and women are incompetent?

Look at the number of women doctors in our country and compare them with the number of women judges. Some might argue that women have taken to education recently in larger numbers. This is not true. Women in this country began taking to modern education even before independence and the pace picked up thereafter in virtually all fields, for example, the author’s mother and mother-in-law became doctors in the mid-1950s in Punjab and Madhya Pradesh respectively.

It can be argued that in the medical discipline, women doctors succeeded because they ran their own clinics or worked in hospitals where they did not need to navigate organisational politics. Fair point. All the more reason why India needs more women judges. Since they are grossly under-represented in terms of numbers, there is a clear case for affirmative action (not reservation). Certainly, there are enough women lawyers in all high courts who can be elevated to the bench.

According to a November 2015 Mail Today report, when a five-judge Constitution bench headed by Justice Khehar was in the process of inviting suggestions to improve the collegium system for the appointment of judges, a large number of female lawyers complained of “gender discrimination” in appointment of judges to higher judiciary.

When faced with such complaints, the respected Justice Khehar asked, “We would first like to know what the ratio of female advocates to male advocates is. That is very important. The ratio of female judges to male judges must be in the same ratio.”

I am inclined to respectfully disagree with this line of questioning. When under-representation of women in the judiciary is universally accepted, is it correct to compare the ratio of female to male advocates? Was the percentage reservation for schedules castes and tribes based on their population numbers or supposed backwardness?

Further, women lawyers told the court that would not be a fair criteria. “Please do not compare the number of women lawyers at bar and juxtapose it with the ratio of female and male judges. Women were allowed to practise in court only in 1922. Women face a lot of problems in practising in court. Despite that, they are coming out in large numbers to practice,” said senior lawyer Mahalakshmi Pavani representing the Supreme Court Women Lawyers Association (SCWLA).

At the same meeting SCWLA also represented, “It is submitted that keeping the Article 14 (right to equality) and Article 15(3) (the power of the State to make special provisions for women and children) of the Constitution Of “India is a signatory to Conventions on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), 1979, which envisaged removal of obstacles of women’s public participation in all spheres of public and private lives.”  The source of Article 14 lies in the American and Irish constitutions. Before we get into the question of gender equality, we have to answer some fundamental issues on the Justice system and fundamental flaws relating to its practice in India.

1. How adapted is a British system of justice to an Indian culture, ethos, identity and practice? Is the understanding of gender equality the same in Indian and Western societies? Let me elaborate. It is a long term fundamental flaw in our system, which has not been addressed or has perhaps not even entered the consciousness of our western educated judicial practitioners. While all humans are created equal, it does not mean they are the same. Same and equal are two completely different concepts.

Equality in the Hindu system does not mean we have one toilet for men and women, one set of dresses for men and women.

Why India? It is the same worldwide. In Hindu philosophy, we say the soul of men and women does not have gender in its spiritual state. But for practical purposes, two sexes are created based on physical differences by the Gods. These differences at times have to be respected and catered to just like there are separate toilets for men and women. By doing so it does not mean we are disrespecting and abusing the notion of equality.

2. Now coming to the issue before the Apex Court on whether the current practice at the Sabrimala shrine, of barring women between the ages of 10 and 50 years, should be changed. Hindu Goddesses have a wider following than Hindu male gods in many parts of the country. In the same vein there are certain religious places that are men exclusive and in equal breath there are certain temples that are women exclusive.

There exists a women-only temple in Kerala.  While 95 per cent of the temples are common to both sexes please understand that Hinduism treats both equally, and that does not mean that each and every function on earth has to be the same. At times for reasons of tradition, certain things are male specific and equally certain things have to be reserved for women. This is a fundamental difference between Indian and western thought.

If courts want to still force the issue of gender equality despite the arguments above they should do so. But keep in mind that the courts have to apply the law equally to all religions. That then would be real justice. The suggestion is either create a level playing field, or if the argument is that every community has its uniqueness, then let them cherish their uniqueness. You cannot have different rules for different people in the eyes of the law. We are repeating the mistakes made earlier by using British concepts of secularism and minorityism!

Are we willing to look within and change?

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Dardionu Rahat Fund- Helps 6 lakh poor patients

Starting with a small donation of Rs 10, this man has collected over Rs 10 crores to help 6 lakh patients who cannot afford to pay for their medical treatment. Read the story of Naginbhai Shah, an 86-year-old man who still works with the dedication of a 20-year-old to bring relief and hope to the lives of thousands in Ahmedabad. “Everyone lives. But to live while doing something for other people is what matters the most. I get complete satisfaction, loads of blessings and a lot of happiness. This is my meditation,” says 86-year-old Naginbhai Shah about his work.
Naginbhai is the founder of Dardionu Rahat Fund, an organization based in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. He has taken up the responsibility of helping patients who cannot afford medical treatment in hospitals – those who have no money to pay for their medicines, check-ups, surgeries, etc.
The Fund was born in 1964 with a small donation of Rs. 10 and, since then, Naginbhai and his group of volunteers have collected over Rs. 10 crores! They have helped with the treatment of more than 6 lakh patients.
“My son was about three years old when he fell sick and had to be admitted to the hospital. I was a middle class man back then and was searching for a job. I didn’t have the money required for his treatment,” recalls Naginbhai about the time when he first became motivated to do something for the underprivileged.
He had his asthmatic son admitted to the hospital for treatment and went to an old friend to borrow some money. On returning with a sum of Rs. 25, Naginbhai encountered a woman who had come from a nearby village. She was there with her eight year old son and was weeping when Naginbhai met her.
“I asked her why she was crying. After some hesitation she told me that her child needed an operation and the doctor had informed her that the total expenditure would be Rs. 25. She had come with only Rs. 10 from her village. And now, she was left with just Rs. 6. I don’t know what came over me but without thinking for a second I immediately gave her the Rs. 25 that I had borrowed,” he says.
Naginbhai had to go out and borrow some money for his son once again but he was happy that the child he helped recovered after the operation. “My son recovered too. And after some time I got a job as well. After that, I started believing that my job and my son’s health were all the result of the blessings of that woman,” he adds.
It was sometime around then that an idea began to take shape within him. “What if I came to the hospital for half an hour each day and helped one or two people with whatever money I could arrange?” he thought. The year was 1964. Naginbhai discussed the idea with some friends. He was amazed when he asked if they would be willing to help with Rs. 10 – they gave him Rs. 51 instead. “I was surprised. I was asking for small amounts and people were giving a lot more,” says Naginbhai.
And that’s how it all started. Naginbhai would regularly ride his bicycle to the hospital near his home, identify the people who needed help and take care of all their medical expenses with the money he had collected from his friends.
Today, after about half a decade, this generous man is still dedicated to his service. He has a team of five volunteers and they go out every evening at 5 pm to Sheth V. S. General Hospital, Jivraj Mehta Hospital, and some other hospitals in Ahmedabad. In the general wards of these hospitals, they move from one bed to another, talking to the patients there. They chat with them to find out where they are from, their professions, how much money they make, etc.
In this manner, they are able to identify those who need their help the most.
We ‘adopt’ these people and help them with everything they need – be it an MRI, a CT Scan, some medicines, an operation, or anything else. But we make sure that the patient does not go home untreated.” The small team raises money by speaking to people across the city – friends, acquaintances, family, strangers – anyone who can help them with funds. “Sometimes, when we reach the hospital, we find the doctors, staff and some patients waiting for us. The doctors ask those who cannot afford treatment to wait till we come,” says Naginbhai.
“We know what we do is just a drop in the ocean. We cannot go out and help every poor person who cannot pay his/her medical bills. But we have decided that whoever we help, we will help completely and won’t leave that person’s treatment half way. The money involved could be Rs. 10,000 or Rs. 50,000, or more. But once we tell a person we will help, we don’t back out,” he adds.
Naginbhai lives with his son who is working in Ahmedabad. He is extremely frugal with his expenses.
His team works with him for free and there are three trustees who help him take care of the finances of the Fund.
“My family does not support me a lot. But I have stopped expecting anything from them. The people support me. Donors send in money blindly. Last year, I collected Rs. 1.55 crores and spent Rs 1.48 crores on the patients. No money is spent on administration.”
His team also provides patients with fruits, hearing aids, artificial limbs, etc. It is mostly by word of mouth that donors reach Naginbhai. One such donor is Suresh Ruparel. He’s been associated with Naginbhai for the last five years.

“Once I visited a hospital and asked if I could donate money for someone and how I could find a genuine case. The hospital staff told me about Naginbhai. Actually, my mother died in that hospital and I could not reach in time. That’s why I really wanted to help someone there. Naginbhai maintains a very good relationship with all regular donors. I keep aside a portion of my salary for him every month,” he says.
Naginbhai sure has the blessings of the woman he first helped with Rs. 25. And many more now. We wish this 86-year-old a long life and many more years of dedicated service.
By Mahendra Galani

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Serving Humanity


Arashdeep Kaur reaches out to the needy by organising free langars outside PGI.

They say charity begins at home. And living up to it is Arashdeep Kaur, who is pursuing a master’s degree in Social Work from the Centre for Social Work,of a Punjab University. Following in the footsteps of Padma Shri awardee Bhagat Puran Singh, founder of All India Pingalwara Charitable Society Arashdeep believes in ‘serving humanity’.

In-charge of the NGO Udham Emergency Blood Donation and Welfare Association, this girl has taken it upon herself to reach out to the needy by organising langars outside PGI. The NGO also helps raise awareness among University students about the importance of blood donation camps. She talks about it and more.

Motivational factor

One often wonders what inspires youngsters. Do they seek motivation from some pioneers or is it the values ingrained in them? Arashdeep says it is a mixture of both. She proudly states, “Bhagat Puran Singh, founder of Pingalwara in Amritsar — a house that tends to the destitute has always been a foundation of inspiration.”

Feathers In the cap

In-charge of PU-registered NGO Udham Emergency Blood Donation and Welfare Association, Arashdeep shares that the NGO, “Organisers drive to boost blood donation. The collections are sent to PGI, Fortis Hospital, Max Hospital, among others.”

Always upfront about her willingness to serve the society’, she raises funds for the needy’. After collection of enough funds, langar is held outside PGI. “Hordes of people satiate their appetite and go home with wide smiles, which gives me much satisfaction,” she says with a glint in her eyes.

Apart from mading contributions for the betterment of society through social work, she is also a passionate theatre artist. “I have been securing top positions in the Youth Festivals for my performances. In 2014, I waas awarded the second positioon for a Punjabi play,” she says.

Taking pride in her being an all-rounder, Arashdeep informs, “I am a district-level Kho Kho champion as well.”

Flipside of being an achiever

Arashdeep claims that social work gratifies her like nothing else. “There can never be a flipside to being a social worker. Extending a helping hand to the society is the most exhilarating experience ever,” she smiles.

Words of wisdom

“Serves the society selflessly and bring a smile to someone’s face is my mantra.” she smiles.

By  Manika AHUJA

The Tribune LIFE+STYLE on 24 Feburary2016

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Recording Studio opened

Disha- The Harbinger of social change, a voluntary change opened a recording studio for recording books for the benefit of the visually impaired in district Mohali, Punjab on the outskirts of Chandigarh. The students of the Masters in Social Work from Punjab University, visited the Disha’s activity complex where the recording studio has been established.

The students were apparised about the activities of Disha and the experiences of community work in the fields of women empowerment, child welfare, tree plantation, poster competition, distribution of clothing etc. were discussed. Several new areas of intervention were suggested by the university students.

Several students volunteered to donate their time for recording sessions some of them undertook to record audio textbooks at their hostels or homes; by disha.

Shri Prashant Sharma field supervisor of the Centre for Social Work Punjab University led the students.

By Chaitanya Mukund.

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Technology Saves Life


Mr. Sanjeev Kamboj

A group of students led by Sanjiv Kamboj, a BDS student undertook to save lives by donating blood; in the hospitals and the blood banks, more than three years ago. The group has now multiplied to over 3000 members, all over Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh. The group has been named Udham Emergency Blood Donation and Welfare Association and is now spreading to Delhi. The group functions through whatsapp only and has no regular office or documentation. Coordinators have emerged in different towns who inform the local groups regarding the requirement for blood or platelets, received from different hospitals or nursing homes. All the communications are through Whatsapp.

The president of the group Sanjeev Kamboj is now a student of MDS at Sirsa in Haryana and Whatsapp is the control tool by way of which several lives are being saved each day. Arashdeep Kaur is coordinating the group at Chandigarh but is disappointed that the PGI does not encourage girls to donate blood.

During the Dengue season, several calls from the hospitals for fresh platelet. This process of isolating platelets costs 2-3 hours to the students but with high motivation levels they do not diter and report to the blood banks or hospitals from 10-30 minutes of receiving a call. Accidental emergencies sometimes make the youngsters leave their bed and hostels for the noble cause.

Sanjeev Kamboj’s personal numbers 9888973864, 9783710013 have become the SOS numbers for Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh besides the personal numbers of coordinators in different cities. As if donating blood by the boys and girls was not enough; the group goes on to organise charity langars and distribution of woollens, books and stationary and other materials required by the poor and needy in the society.

The group has now started a website for documenting the contributions of its members called http://www.udhamngo.org/.

Next time you think of Whatsapp don’t consider it just a messenger for jokes and gossip. After all it is the Massiha and saviour for precious lives.


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Limca Book of Records


Limca Book of Records People of the Year 2016 – Specially-abled

Limca Book of Records is proud to announce the 15 special People of the Year 2016. Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) all of them, who soared above the rest of us to reach for the sun and make a definite mark for themselves. Some are orthopedically-challenged, some visually-challenged; some are autistic, some hearing-impaired…. But what they all have in common is the drive and determination to excel, come what may!

The jury consisting of HK Dua (Ex-MP Rajya Sabha – retired on Nov 17, 2015), Radhika Alkazi (Founder Managing Director – Aarth Aastha) and Merry Barua (Founder Director – Action For Autism, National Centre for Autism) chose the 15 People of the Year 2016.


Despite 100% permanent sight disability, Aayushi completed her LLB at 19 years and LLM at 21 years and became the first visually-challenged advocate enrolled at the Rajasthan High Court. She achieved the virtually impossible in November 2012, at 21 years, also becoming the youngest and first visually-challenged woman to be admitted to the Bar Council of Rajasthan.


Born visually impaired in a poor family in Rajasthan, he managed to continue his studies with the support of his elder brother who was also visually impaired. He excelled in his studies and was the first visually impaired candidate to qualify in the SSC Hindi shorthand and stenography examination. Currently a Senior Manager with a national bank, Khan is also a singer and composer with many stage performances and over 50 music compositions. He has been invited in the panel of judges at national level music competitions for visually impaired persons. He received the National Award for the Welfare of Persons with Disabilities in 1989.


A national volleyball player from Lucknow, UP, she lost one of her legs when some robbers pushed her out of a moving train in 2011. Two years later, with a prosthetic leg on, she became the first woman amputee in the world to climb Mount Everest on May 21, 2013. She went on to conquer the highest peaks on other continents too. Her book titled Born Again on the Mountain was launched in 2014. She was awarded Padma Shri in 2015.


Born visually-challenged in a poor, rural family in Karnataka, Ashwini experienced discrimination and physical and mental abuses as a child due to her disability. Despite these odds, she graduated in 2012 at the top of her class. For her work with disabled people, she received the UN Special Envoy for Global Education’s Youth Courage Award for Education in 2013. She now works as a National Facilitator for the Young Voices Project of a Bangalore-based UK charity.


Wheelchair-bound since eight years due to polio, he rose to become a prominent oncologist who introduced Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in India with the first successful bone marrow transplant on a leukemia patient. His contributions in the field won him many awards, including the Dhanvantari Award and Padma Shri in 2002 and the Padma Bhushan in 2012.


Bruised and maimed by a militant attack in Kashmir in 1996, which left him a wheelchair bound paraplegic with 100% disability and a host of other related problems, Javed turned his adversity into a mission. He started Humanity Welfare Organization Helpline, an organisation that caters to the needs of people with disabilities and creates awareness through sensitisation programmes. His legal activism has restored several rights of the disabled in the state. Javed received the national award for working for ‘Welfare of Persons with Disabilities in 2004’ and many other honours.


Rajanna who lost his limbs to polio in his early childhood became the first differently-abled Commissioner of the State Department for Disabled in Karnataka in September 2013 (and served till Jan 2015). As a paraplegic sportsperson, he had won the gold medal in discus throw at the 2002 Paralympics and also a silver medal in swimming. As a diploma holder in Mechanical Engineering, he also had started his own enterprise providing employment to 350 persons, including the physically challenged.


Venkatesh is 4ft 2 inch tall and due to his short stature had to face lot of difficulties but he braved all and decided to excel in sports and started off with chess in school. In 2005 he became the first Indian athlete to represent India at the IV World Dwarf Games. He won six medals in the Games – two gold, one silver and three bronze – in athletics and badminton games (singles and doubles). He is also the secretary of the Dwarf Sports Association of India.


Major D P Singh who lost his right leg during the Kargil war and suffered partial hearing loss and internal derangement of his left knee, has been finding joy in running marathons with blade prosthetics since 2009. Starting with his first half marathon in Delhi on Nov 1, 2009, he has participated in many such races including the 3rd Himalayan Running and Living XC marathon (21 km) at high altitudes (8,700 ft) in Kinnaur, HP on May 2, 2014. He has also achieved a feat by trekking up to 10,000 ft (from Batseri Village to Mastrang ITBP Camp and back in 3 hr).


Born with Down’s syndrome, Radhika studied in special schools in Delhi, Mumbai, Hong Kong and Sydney. In Sydney, she started painting using a combination of water colours and acrylics. She has had 10 solo exhibitions since 1992 and participated in several group shows. She has been associated with the Vasant Valley School, Delhi for over 20 years – 15 years in the junior art department and later in the arts and crafts department for special children in the senior school. In 2012, Radhika was conferred the NCPEDP-Shell Helen Keller Award for ‘helping to create opportunities for employment for persons with disabilities’.


Whilst working in the corporate sector in Kenya, he suffered a bullet injury which left him with a visual disability. He rejoined the corporate sector. He then moved to the disability sector and has been working for 13 years with disability rights as his core area of work. He has worked towards building legal knowledge of rights of persons with disabilities, supporting their advocacy by providing legal services and aid. He has challenged systemic violations by filing PILs in High Courts and the Supreme Court. He has authored a compendium titled Disability and the Law. In 2010 the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment nominated him to an expert committee constituted to draft a new disability law. He is now Asia Pacific head for the Disability Rights Promotion International.


A polio victim with 90% disability, Ramsurat of Jalpaiguri, West Bengal travelled 23,000 km by tri-cycle visiting various territories of India as a messenger of peace. He started the challenging journey on Feb 16, 2010 and completed it on Feb 10, 2011. In 2012, he established an NGO, Adarsh Viklang Kalyan Samiti. He was honoured with the State Handicap Award as a role model on Handicap Day in Kolkata on Dec 3, 2013.


The 14-year-old Ranveer, autistic by birth, is one of the youngest golfers at Special Olympics Bharat. He, along with his Unified partner Monica Jajoo, won the gold medal in Golf (Level 2) at the World Special Olympics held at Los Angeles in 2015, becoming the first Indian to do so. He also won two gold medals in his first representation in the Special Olympics Asia-Pacific Golf Masters at Macau in 2013 and another gold in 2014 (team).


Saylee was diagnosed with mild mental retardation from birth but completed her studies till Std 3 in a normal school. She started learning Kathak at the age of nine and later joined Shiamak Davar’s Institute in 2007 and trained in western dance styles. She has performed in various dance competitions winning medals – a bronze medal in Bangkok (2010), 3rd prize in Odisha (2011) and a bronze in Malaysia-Singapore (2014) – and featured in dance reality shows on various TV channels. She trains the physically and mentally challenged students in dance at four different schools and at home. She has received the National Award (2012), SPANDAN-National Trust Award (2012) and Dr Batra’s Award (2013).


Zamir is a deaf-blind person who cannot see, hear or talk but, through years of toil and by sheer grit he has overcome the disabilities to work as effectively as any other. Highly tech savvy, he communicates using a special software on his laptop/mobile. Working as an Advocacy Officer (with Sense International-India), he is actively involved in developing and implementing advocacy plans. He also heads Udaan, a national network for adult deaf-blind and multi-sensory impaired people in India.


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15 specially abled persons awarded People of the Year by Limca Book of Records

Thirteen years ago, Rajive Rature was hit by a bullet in Kenya that left him visually impaired. But that didn’t stop the man from taking life head on. For over a decade, Rature has been working towards building legal knowledge of rights of persons with disabilities. He is now Asia Pacific head for Disability Rights Promotion International, a collaborative international system to monitor human rights situation of people with disabilities.
Also meet Zamir Dhale, who is deaf, dumb and blind. But his wish to talk and listen was so great that he overcame these hurdles and developed a special software to communicate with the world through his mobile and laptop. “It’s unbelievable to see him communicate the way he does,” says Arthy Muthanna Singh, Senior Editor, Limca Book of Records.
These are just two names among the 15 who were felicitated by the Limca Book of Records in the Capital on April 14. This year, the 27th People of the Year awards were given to the specially abled, who have not let their physical disabilities steer their life’s course, but have used their unusual position to give them more strength, and thereby inspire others.
“Every year we pick up the theme of the POY awards from one of the sections of Limca Book of Records. This time, instead of awarding people who have worked for the disabled, we decided on recognising the people themselves because their courage must be celebrated,” says Singh.
At the event hosted in Delhi’s India Habitat Centre, these achievers were awarded by Infosys founder NR Narayana Murthy, himself a Limca Book of Records awardee from 2004. “It is difficult to imagine India becoming a strong economy without becoming an inclusive economy – an economy which is inclusive in gender, ability, ethnicity and all other social parameters. People with disabilities have to be integrated with the mainstream. Corporates, civil society and governments must come together to accomplish the vision of an accessible India,” he says.
What makes these awards different is the selection process. Unlike those who usually appear in the Limca Book of Records by sending in their nominations to be selected, the POY awardees are selected by a jury of experts. This year the jury consisted of former parliamentarian HK Dua, Radhika Alkazi, Founder and Managing Director of Aarth Aastha, and Merry Barua, Founder Director of Action for Autism.
In an attempt to contribute towards the government’s ‘Accessible India’ mission of making the country’s infrastructure and social fabric disabled-friendly, Murthy, Vekatesh Kini, president Coca-Cola India and South West Asia and all the award-winners signed a petition addressed to the Prime Minister and the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment to make ‘sign language’ an official language of the country so as to make the society more inclusive.

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Title: Citizenship Behavior and the creation of Social Capital in Organizations

Authors: Bolino, Mark C.
Turnley, William H.
Bloodgood, James M.
Issue: Oct2002, Vol. 27 Issue 4, p505, 18p

Citizenship Behavior and the creation of Social Capital in Organizations

The article suggests that citizenship behaviors enhance firm functioning by contributing to the
development of social capital in organizations. Specifically, citizenship behaviors contribute to the
creation of structural, relational, and cognitive forms of social capital.

Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Performance
There are three forms of organizational citizenship. Obedience describes employees’ willingness to
accept and abide by the organization’s rules, regulations, and procedures. Loyalty describes the
willingness of employees to subordinate their personal interests for the benefit of the organization
and to promote and defend the organization. Finally, participation describes the willingness of
employees to be actively involved in all aspects of organizational life. As is evident from the above
forms of organisational citizenship, citizenship behavior enhances employee performance.
Social Capital and Competitive Advantage
Successful organizations have unique capabilities or resources that give them an advantage over their
competitors. Such resources are particularly valuable when they are rare, inimitable, and
nonsubstitutable. The development of social capital within an organization is likely to be a source of
competitive advantage for a firm. There are three specific aspects or dimensions of social capital: a
structural dimension, a relational dimension, and a cognitive dimension.
Structural Dimension
The structural dimension of social capital encompasses network ties, network configuration, and network
appropriability. The structural aspect of social capital involves examination of the extent to which
individuals in an organization are connected, description of the patterns of connections among
employees, and examination of the usefulness of such connections across contexts.
Relational Social Capital
High levels of trust, shared norms and perceived obligations, and a sense of mutual identification
characterize the relational dimension of social capital. The relational aspect of social capital
describes liking, trust, and identification among individuals in an organization.

Cognitive Social Capital
The cognitive aspect of social capital concerns the degree to which employees possess a common language
and share narratives. Through OCBs(Organizational Citizenship Behavior), the ability of individuals in
organizations to understand one another is enhanced. Specifically, the good citizenship increases the
likelihood that a common language will develop among employees and that organizational members will
share myths, stories, and metaphors.
Organisational Citizenship and the Creation of Social Capital
Theoretical Model
According to the model, social participation facilitates the development of the structural aspect of
social capital through the formation of network ties, an improvement in the overall configuration of
ties, and greater network appropriability. Loyalty, obedience, functional participation, and social
participation enhance the relational dimension of social capital through the development of liking,
trust, and identification among employees. Last, social and advocacy participation contribute to the
cognitive dimension of social capital through shared language and shared narratives. Although social
capital may also promote citizenship behaviors, the principal argument here is that social capital is a
consequence, rather than an antecedent, of OCB. Nevertheless, the model does suggest a reciprocal
relationship in which high levels of social capital also feed back to increase the occurrence of OCBs.
Finally, as depicted in the model, we argue that social capital mediates the relationship between
individual-level OCBs and organizational-level performance.
Citizenship and Structural Social Capital
Structural social capital describes the extent to which employees are interconnected or know one
another. Thus, citizenship behaviors that encourage the creation of contacts among employees should
contribute to the development of the structural aspect of social capital. Social participation will
enhance structural social capital through the formation of network ties, the configuration of these
ties, and the appropriability of the network.
Citizenship and Relational Social Capital
Loyalty, obedience, functional participation, and social participation will enhance relational social
capital by increasing liking, trust, and identification among employees.

Citizenship and Cognitive Social Capital
Social participation and advocacy participation will enhance cognitive social capital through the
development of shared language and shared narratives among employees.

Social Capital As an Antecedent of Citizenship Behavior
Consistent with the social exchange view of OCB, it is likely that individuals who know each other, who
like, trust, and identify with each other, and who understand one another will be more likely to behave
in ways that support the group’s or organization’s social structure by engaging in OCBs. Social capital
will be positively related to the performance of citizenship behaviors.

The Mediating Role of Social Capital
Citizenship behaviors are likely to play an important role in the creation of the structural,
relational, and cognitive aspects of social capital. Social capital, in turn, enhances organizational
performance. Thus, the relationship between citizenship behavior and firm performance is mediated by
social capital.
Organizational citizenship behavior helps in creation of social capital. Social capital enhances
organizational performance. Thus, OCB is highly desirable in any organization.

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Can a cerebral palsy affected rape victim be treated as a minor by the court of law?

For 69-year-old Nirmala (name changed), having a special child was
never a hardship until two years ago. Tragedy struck her household in
July 2014. Her daughter, then 36, was raped by their security guard.
Nirmala rues the fact that she could not reach home in time after her
help left the house.

“There was a time-gap of 40 minutes between her leaving and my
reaching home. The accused had not left. I felt something strange in
my daughter’s behaviour as I stepped into the house. There was an
eerie silence and she refused to eat dinner. At night she kept
screaming,” says the mother, an expert in mother and child health.

Her daughter, a cerebral palsy patient, could not speak out that
night. The disease has rendered the woman’s cognitive ability and
communication skills to a six-year-old child’s. The ability plummeted
to that of a three-year-old after the incident.

Nirmala says her daughter opened up when they were on a road trip to
Dehradun the next day. “She kept crying in the bus and talked about
some bad man. I kept asking her what he did and that’s when she told
me through actions,” she claims. On reaching Dehradun, she took her
for a medical test and got an FIR registered, which was later
transferred to Delhi.

Nirmala then realised how “unfriendly” and “insensitive” the legal
system in India is towards mentally-challenged people. Her experience
began at the hospital itself.

“The staff was untrained to handle the victim,” she says. The Delhi
Police reportedly refused to detain the culprit until the case was
formally transferred.

There was no provision for a psychologist during the trial. She took
one to the court on receiving a notice summoning her daughter to
record her statement. “My daughter was fluent with three languages but
lost confidence post the incident. Her statement was recorded through
an audio-visual and the psychologist translated her narrative to the
judge, who refused to record it. He insisted my child speak and asked
her to sing a song. My daughter broke down that led to an
adjournment,” she recalls, adding the judge warned that he would give
bail to the accused on the next hearing.

Thereafter, Nirmala refused to take her daughter back to the court.
The mother went to the court and informed the judge, this time a
woman, that her daughter was recuperating after a surgery and had 22
stitches in her mouth. Despite showing surgery documents, the judge
asked for a medical certificate.

Nirmala has moved the Supreme Court requesting her daughter’s case be
tried under the special law meant for the welfare of a sexual abuse
child victim. The petition is listed for a hearing on May 3 before
– Justice Dipak Misra’s bench

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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH AND NEURO SCIENCES, (An Institute of National Importance), Bengaluru

Applications are invited from the eligible candidates for filling up of the following posts on adhoc basis for DBT funded Project entitled “Accelerator program for Discovery in brain disorders using stem cells (ADBS)”–under Dr. Sanjeev Jain Prof., Department of Psychiatry; Principal Investigator.

Sr.no. Name of the post No of posts Qualification Age Limit Experience Emolument Consolidated Duration
1 Asst.Professor (Clinicianscientist) 03 MD Psychiatry 50 Yrs. 3 Years of Post-MD Rs.125650/- P.M 5 Yrs
2 Clinical post-doctoral fellow (Psychiatry) 04 MD/DPM Psychiatry 40 yrs Nil Rs.78640/- P.M 5 yrs
3 Sr.Scientific Officer(Biostatistics) 01 PhD in statistics/Bio-statistics 40 yrs. 1Years post-PhD With Preference of Biostatistics Rs.67088/- P.M 5 yrs.
4 Psychologist 03 M.Phil in clinical psychology 40 yrs. Nil Rs.34250/- P.M 5 yrs.
5 Psychiatric Social Worker 06 M.Phil in PSW 40 yrs. Nil Rs.34250/- P.M 5 yrs.
6 Program Manager 01 PhD in life science /Clinical Degree Significant Prior administrative experience preferably in a government sector proven communication skills 40 yrs. Rs.78300/- P.M 5 yrs.
7 Data entry operator 02 B.Sc/BA 35 yrs. With Data entry using Excel/SPSS/R etc Rs.34250/- P.M 5 yrs.
8 Secretary 01 BA 35 yrs. Excellent English language skills typewriting skills Rs.28093/- P.M 5 yrs.
9 Sr.Scientific Officer (Lab) 01 PhD in life science/ biotechnology/ Clinical neuroscience 40 yrs. 1 Year post-PhD with Preference of molecular biology/ cell culture Rs.67088/- P.M 5 yrs.
10 Sr.Research Fellow (Lab) 03 Masters in life science/ Biotechnology 35 yrs. 2 years in lab skills(cell Culture/ molecular biology) Rs.36400/- P.M 5 yrs.
11 Jr.Research Fellow (Lab) 03 Masters in life science/ Biotechnology 35 yrs. Molecular biology/cell Work at least part of M.Sc dissertation/ thesis will be preferred Rs.32500/- P.M 5 yrs.
12 Technician (Lab) 03 Diploma in medical lab techniques Bachelors in life sciences 35 yrs. 1 Year in a hospital setting ability to handle blood bar-coding Rs.31428/- P.M 5 yrs.
13 Sr.Scientific Officer (Electrophysiology) 01 PhD in life science/ biotechnology/ Clinical neuroscience/ Neuropsychology/ Clinical psychology 50 yrs. 1 Year post-PhD (essential)with EEG/ERP Acquisition and analysis (desirable) Rs.67088/- P.M 5 yrs.
14 Research Coordinator (Scientist E) 01 PhD in life sciences 55 yrs. More than 5 Yrs. Post PhD in molecular biology or cell culture and in coordinating research project. Rs.136850/- P.M 5 yrs.
15 Jr.Research Fellow (Imaging/ Electro-physiology /Psychophysics 02 B.Tech/B.E/M.Tech/ Masters in life science 35 yrs. Brainmaging research techniques Rs.32500/- P.M 5 Yrs.
16 Technical Officer (hardware and DateManagement) 01 B.Tech 35 yrs. 1. In database software 2. (SQLOracle and other 3. Database Management software) Formal training in Matlab and similar Programs 4.Formal training in Handling computer servers And related hardware. Rs.54700/- P.M 5 yrs.
17 Technician (EEG/ Psychophysics) 02 Diploma in clinical neurophysiology Technology (DCNT) From a recognized 35 yrs. With EEG and related techniques Rs.31428/- P.M 5 yrs.

From Sl. No.1 to 3 and 13 & 14 initial appointment will be for a period of 1 Years and from 4 to 12 and 15 to 17 will be for 6 months. Eligible candidates (as on 1st May, 2016) fulfilling the criteria, may apply on a plain paper with the resume, age proof and copy of the testimonials, either addressed to The Director, NIMHANS, P.B.No.2900,D.R.College Post, Hosur Road, Bangalore–560029 by post or email to adbs.project@gmail.com The candidates, who apply, should invariably mention the Notification No. and date without fail, otherwise the application will be not considered. Last date for receipt of filled in applications together with the relevant documents is 21st April 2016 upto 4.30 P.M. Application received later will not be entertained.

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